Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies. 3. GPAT is a National level entrance exam for admission into prestigious NIPERs and University colleges. Definition, history and scope of Pharmacogonosy including indigenous system of medicine. 2. Define plant tissue culture and its application 5). Resins are a heterogeneous mixture of resin acids (C 20 H 30 O 2), fatty acids, esters of these acids, sterols, alcohols, waxes, and resenes (mixtures of neutral alkali-resistant compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen). 3. Scope The subject involves the fundamentals of Pharmacognosy like scope classification of crude drugs their identification and evaluation phytochemicals present in them and their medicinal properties Course Learning Outcomes Upon completion of the course the student shall be able 1 to understand the techniques in the … Factor affecting cultivation of medicinal plant. Pharmacognosy is the branch of pharmacy deals with study of crude drugs derived from plants and natural resources. Historical Development and Scope of Pharmacognosy. Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Classification of Drugs of Natural Origin The most important natural sources of drugs are higher plant, microbes and animals and marine organisms. Although pharmacognosy mostly deals with medicinal herbs, some animal products and bacterial products are also discussed in it. Various systems of classification of drugs and natural origin. PHG-312 General Pharmacognosy Cr. General introduction, history of Pharmacognosy with special reference to the contribution of Muslim scientists to the profession of Pharmacy.Introduction to herbal pharmacopoeias and modern concepts about Pharmacognosy. Alkaloids have diverse and important physiological effects on humans and other animals. 4. D) Scheme for Pharmacognostic studies of a Crude Drug. Resin, any natural or synthetic organic compound consisting of a noncrystalline or viscous liquid substance. Classification of crude drugs Based on alphabetical, morphological, pharmacological, chemical, taxonomical and ... resins, lipids and volatile oils. 7. Students of D.pharm can also use these questions for thier university or any competitive exams. Pharmacognosy: Course Outline (518-IIB) Pharmacognosy is a branch of pharmaceutical sciences which focuses on drugs of herbal and natural origin. Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine practiced in India viz: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathic and Siddha. RESINS FROM HERBAL ORIGIN AND A FOCUS ON THEIR APPLICATIONS HTML Full Text. Resins. Plant hormone 3). But theoretically, the classification can be done based on other facts. Resins (classification) 8). Pharmacognosy. Natural resins are typically fusible and flammable organic substances that are transparent or translucent and are yellowish to brown in colour. Primary Metabolites 141 12.1 Carbohydrates 141 12.2 Proteins 166 12.3 Lipids 175 13. Alkaloid, any of a class of naturally occurring organic nitrogen-containing bases. Based on the principle of separation used. Although each system of classification has its own merits and demerits, but for the purpose of study the drugs are classified in the following different ways: Alphabetical classification Morphological classification Taxonomical classification Sources of Drugs: Biological, marine, mineral and plant tissue cultures as sources of drugs; Classification of Drugs: Morphological, taxonomical, chemical and pharmacological classification of drugs; Study of medicinally important plants belonging to the families with special reference to: Pests and pest control No. 100+ Important Pharmacognosy Questions For B.Pharm and D.Pharm stduents. Pharmacognosy: Fundamentals, Applications and Strategies explores a basic understanding of the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals, their constituents and metabolites. The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT), opens doors to infinite opportunities for students from pharmaceutical domain. Pharmaceutical Enzymes 136 12. ADVERTISEMENTS: Volatile oils are mixture of hydrocarbon terpenes, sesquiterpenes and polyterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives obtained from various parts of the plant. 3. Saccharides, resins and gums – classification, occurence, biosynthesis, properties and use 4. Some basic terminologies use in Pharmacognosy Drug: This is anything that is used in modifying conditions of animals and human in disease conditions drugs can be from natural, semi synthetic and synthetic origin.In real sence drugs can be referred to as true drugs or crude drugs Crude Drugs: These are drugs that are derived from natural forms; from plants, animals and minerals. Define pharmacognosy discuss scope and imp of it in health care. Marine Pharmacognosy 99 9. Different types of chromatography based on. As the term indicates these are RESINS FROM HERBAL ORIGIN AND A FOCUS ON THEIR APPLICATIONS. Pharmacognosy Book PDF Download Free For B.Pharmacy and D.Pharmacy Students. The physical states of the stationary phase and mobile phases. Since 2009, the importance of GPAT has increased as the branch turned into a autonomous exam and separated from GATE (PY). Syllabus: 1. 20 important question 1). Organized crude drugs Unorganized crude drugs 1. Well-known alkaloids include morphine, strychnine, quinine, ephedrine, and nicotine. Resins occur predominantly in woody seed plants. They are used as stabilizers, pigments and other components to form plastics. Tannins (definition, classification) 7). Volatile oils evaporate on exposure to air at ordinary’ temperature and are the odorous constituents. As volatile oil oils are responsible for the essence or odour of the plant they are also known […] Classification … Synthesis of Resins. Biogenesis of natural substances, primary and secondary metabolites, precursors, their relationships. This book also provides an in-depth look at natural sources from which medicines are derived, their pharmacological and chemical properties, safety aspects, and how they interact with humans. Introduction to secondary metabolites: Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins 2. Rainfall and irrigation 3. Introduction to secondary metabolites: Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins. Pharmacognosy Difference between Organized and Unorganized Crude drugs Factors affecting cultivation: 1. Plant Tissue Culture 130 11. ADVERTISEMENTS: Tannins are naturally occurring complex organic compounds possessing nitrogen free polyphenols of high molecular weight. 6). Soil and soil fertility 4. Define evolution of crude drug and discuss microscopic evolution of crude drug. 1. 2. Some useful products are obtained from minerals that are both organic and inorganic in nature. This post contains important questions of Pharmacognosy for B.Pharm 5th Semester students. 100+ Important Pharmacognosy … Unit V (08 Hours) 4 Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry: A Companion Handbook CLASSIFICATION OF CRUDE DRUGS Alphabetical classification Classified in alphabetical order using either their Greek name or Latin name. Pharmacognosy. GLYCOSIDES. Pharm-D First Professional . GPAT –2021 Total Bits –125 Total Marks –500 Time –3 hours Negative Mark –1 mark PHARMACOGNOSY ~10-13 bits General Introduction, A) History, Definition and Scope of Pharmacognosy B) Traditional and Alternative System of Medicine. Pharmacognosy Quiz Question & Answers (Question Bank) Free Online Test For Medical Students like PG, PHD, Specialist exam entrance. Introduction to parts of Medicinal Plant 3. Advantage: Easy and hence many pharmaco-poeias, formulary, encyclopedias of various countries follow this classification. PHARMACOGNOSY. Resins are any of the chemically modified natural resins or synthetic polymers which are physically similar, including thermoplastic materials such as polyvinyl, polystyrene, and polyethylene, as well as thermosetting materials such as polyesters, epoxies, and silicones. They are formed in plant secretions and are Introduction: No of medicinal plants containing organic constituents in conjugation with a sugar moiety .It can be 1or2 .such compounds are called as glycosides. 22.214.171.124. 2. C) Classification of Crude Drugs. Disadvantage: This Pharmacognosy involves the systematic study of crude drugs involving identification, characterization, cultivation, extraction, biological importance. This encyclopedic reference work on pharmacognosy covers the study of those natural substances, principally plants, that find a use in medicine. They form colloidal solution with water giving acid reactions. Classification systems for natural substances, methodology of pharmacognosy. The chemical nature of the stationary phase and … Indigenous System Of Medicines 107 10. They exert therapeutically significant effect on human and animals .Traditionally used in modern medicine because of their cardio tonic, purgative, analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, demulcent action. The astringent in nature of tannins is due to the fact that they can precipitate proteins and render them resistant to enzymatic attack. 2). 1. Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine. 4). Dr.Stephen G. Pallardy, in Physiology of Woody Plants (Third Edition), 2008. When […] classification in a definite sequence is necessary to understand easily. Classification of resins is also aided by the fact that diterpenoids and triterpenoids are not found together in the same resins. Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine. Kotkar Parimal* 1, Anubha Khale 1 and Kadu Pramod 2 Department of Pharmacognosy, H. K. College of … Introduction to Pharmacognosy: (a) Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy (b) Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and mucilages, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins). Altitude, temperature and humidity 2. They also precipitate proteins and alkaloids. Composition. Fertilizers 5. Hrs. Adulteration and drug evaluation; significance of pharmacopoeial standards. Pharmacognosy is the branch of knowledge concerned with medicinal drugs obtained from plants or other natural sources. Most plant resins are composed of terpenes.Specific components are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3 carene, and sabinene, the monocyclic terpenes limonene and terpinolene, and smaller amounts of the tricyclic sesquiterpenes, longifolene, caryophyllene, and delta-cadinene.Some resins also contain a high proportion of resin acids.