Two competing hypotheses group a) Hexactinellida + Demospon-giae more closely together based on the possession of silicious spicules ("Silicea") in contrast to Calcarea ("Calcispongia") and b) Demospongiae more closely with Calcarea based on the possession of a cellular pinacoderm ("Cellularia"/"Pina-cophora") to the exclusion of Hexactinellida, which possess a cyncitial tissue structure ("Symplasma"). S. raphanus 3 were collected at 10m depths from dock pilings and from ropes suspended off the docks at the Bamfield Marine Sciences Center, Bamfield, B.C., Canada, from May–August in each of 2001–4. Scientific Name. As food or particles are moved through the sponges, amoemoid cells surround and engulf it (pinocytosis and phagocytosis). They use demospongin to strengthen the mesophyl layer. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003; Wörheide, 2002). All of the following sponges are found within the coral cap region of the sanctuary (0-130 ft, 0-40m deep). Sclerocytes, also in the mesohyl, accumulate calcium to produce spicules. Compounds produced by sponges are being explored for pharmaceuticals. In this review, the current knowledge about the structure, composition, and formation of calcareous sponge spicules is summarised and discussed. Sponge mineral skeletons play important biological and ecological roles in both siliceous and calcareous sponges (Uriz et al., 2003; Uriz, 2006). this sponge exhibits distinct apical–basal polarity and polarized epithelia, two characters that could reﬂect the shared common ancestry of multicellular animals. The skeleton of a sponge is formed from spicules which are made of silica (a glass-like material) or calcareous (calcium or calcium carbonate) materials, and spongin, a protein that supports the spicules. Comparisons of calcareous sponge spicules with the amorphous silica spicules of sponges of the classes Hexactinellida and Demospongiae, as well as with calcitic skeletal elements of echinoderms are drawn. This calcareous sponge Pericharax sp. CAs in the calcareous sponges Sycon ciliatum and Leucosolenia complicata by means of genomic screening, RNA-Seq and RNA in situ hybridization expression analysis. Calcareous sponges have a skeleton that is made of calcium carbonate (calcite), composed of free diactines, tri-actines, tetracines, and/or polyactine spicules, to which a solid basal calcitic skeleton may be added, with either cemented basal spicules or which is fully embedded in an enveloping calcareous cement. Although this. Calcareous sponges are found globally in all oceans, from intertidal to the deep sea, but not the abyss. The majority of modern spiculate cal-careans would be found as dissociated spicules in the fossil record; there is only one record from the middle Jurassic at King's Sutton, Northamptonshire, where the form and arrangement of a calcareous sponge was preserved (Leucandra walfordi Hinde, 1893). Typically, the Calcarea are very small, measuring about 7-10 cm (3-4 inches) in height. Found on coral and rocky reefs where it spreads over living corals dissolving the tissue of the coral and takes over their living space. These groups are Hexactinellida(glass sponges), Demospongia, and Calcarea(calcareous sponges). Disclaimer: The rhagon type of sponge has a broad base and it is conical in shape with a single osculum at the summit. (Photo by Ron and Valerie Taylor. They occur mostly in shallow waters; only a few species are known from the deep sea (for an overview see, e.g. a method of feeding where small food particles are filtered from the surrounding water by various mechanisms. Other groups of sponges have microscleres, which are smaller reinforcing spicules. Sponges are either radially symmetrical or asymmetrical. (Wörheide, 2002), Calcarea is the only class with asconoid and syconoid construction. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Although Calcarea is considered the primitive group, and are the only sponges with asconoid and synconoid construction, the asconoid and synconoid forms are not necessarily considered primitive conditions. Calcareous sponges (Class Calcarea) include about 675 accepted extant species (Van Soest et al., 2011 ), which are exclusively marine. Cal`ci`spon´gi`ae. Calcarea (Calcispongea; phylum Porifera) A class of sponge, ranging from Cambrian to Recent, in which the skeleton is made entirely of calcareous spicules which are commonly of a tuning-fork shape. The Calcareous sponges (about 100 species) have spicules that are made of calcium carbonat and are often smaller than other sponges. ... (redirected from Calcareous sponge) Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Taxon Information Glass sponges (about 500 species) have spicules made from silica, most are found at depths of 450 to 900 metres and are common in colder Antarctic waters. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. The larval stage has outer flagellated cells, often with spicules. Referring to an animal that lives on or near the bottom of a body of water. structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps (Class Anthozoa). The sponges are sometimes associated with reefs in the Jurassic, or they may form widespread sponge … Most calcareous sponges in the fossil record were classified as either stromatoporoids, chaetetids, archaeocyaths, inozoans, pharetronids, or sphinctozoans. at http://oceanlink.island.net/ask/porifera.html#anchor22429. (Wörheide, 2002) Biogeographic Regions; arctic ocean; indian ocean; atlantic ocean; pacific ocean; mediterranean sea; Habitat. In the asconoid structure, the water is drawn in through the ostium (outer pores), goes through the spongocoel or atrium, and out the osculum (the opening in the top of the sponge). Classification of Sponge: Chiefly on the basis of skeleton, phylum Porifera (Sponge) is divided into three classes. Calcareous Sponges: Anatomy & physiology - Only class of sponge with both asconoid and syconoid construction - Their skeleton is made of calcium carbonite cf. 1. has been eaten by nudibranchs Notodoris. Sponges also reproduce sexually. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Calcareous Sponges lack the hollow cores that most other sponges have, but this makes the sponge stronger. 1. The fossil record of unambiguously identified Calcarea is relatively poor and fragmented. Most calcareous sponges in the fossil record were classified as either stromatoporoids, chaetetids, archaeocyaths, inozoans, pharetronids, or sphinc-tozoans. Gert Wörheide's homepage about geobiology. These colors can vary depending whether the sponge is growing in the light or in the dark; which depends on the depth at which it resides – this can range from 10 to 30 meters. It is now established that many of these forms actually belong to several groups of demosponges because of the possession of primary siliceous spicules, and only fe… that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). "Calcarea Introduction" Classification, To cite this page: Calcareous sponges Scientists have identified around 400 species of calcareous sponges. This ball or cake shape sponge prefers to live where currents can be found. It can reach a length of 9 cm after a life span usually no more than one year. Both proposals, however, assume poriferan monophyly. Barnes, R. 1987. Attached to substratum and moving little or not at all. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Fossil specimen of the calcareous sponge Raphidonema farringdonense from the Cretaceous of Berkshire, England (PRI 45561). These sponges vary in shape from vase-shaped to individuals made up of mesh-like thin tubes, through to irregular masses. Clathrina heronensis; 2. Fossils of sponges are the oldest fossils known amongst all animal fossils dating back to the late Precambrian age. The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges. Florent's Guide To The Caribbean Reefs Fish, Corals and Creatures - Common Sponges - Calcareous Sponges Florent's Guide To The Tropical Reefs - Yellow Calcareous Sponge - Arturia canariensis - Calcareous Sponges - - Calcareous Sponges - Caribbean, Bahamas, Florida - We found that the CA repertoires of two calcareous sponge species are strikingly more complex than those of other sponges. Sponge species may be most readily identified by examining their spicules under a … Maximum diameter of specimen is approximately 8 cm. Pericharax heteroraphis; S. Petrobiona masselina; 4. Subclass i. Calcaronea: a. Triradiate spicules usually having one long ray. As a result, calcareous sponges are quite brittle to touch. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. Identifying calcareous sponges is not a straightforward business; first of all they are very small (most < 1 cm), and secondly they do not have any obvious external characters like bright colours, legs or even a head. For example, in Antarctica, at depths of 100-200 m, 75 per cent of the benthic biomass are sponges. Specimens of the calcareous sponge Sycon sp. The calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna, originally observed along the Brazilian coast (Atlantic Ocean), is the only allochthonous invasive species of Porifera reported in the Mediterranean Sea. Calcium carbonate spicules of calcareous sponges have been found in Early Cambrian rocks from about 530 to 523 million years ago in Australia. There is no parental investment beyond release of gametes. Being hermaphroditic, sperm and eggs can be reproduced, sequentially or at the same time. Click on pictures to Magnify. a. Calcareous sponges; skeleton solely of calcareous spicules which may be one, three or four-rayed and not distinguishable into mega-and microscleres. It is the simplest type which is found in Leucosolenia and a few other sponges, (ii) Syconoid canal system. The most common spicule shape are triactines with three pointed spires, which are shown in the figure below from Van Soest et al., 2012. A few more words remain to be said. Common names are listed, if known. Calcarea (L. Calcis- lime): The skeleton is of calcareous spicules. body of water between the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. Its outer surface is … S. raphanus 3 were collected at 10m depths from dock pilings and from ropes suspended off the docks at the Bamfield Marine Sciences Center, Bamfield, B.C., Canada, from May–August in each of 2001–4. The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges.They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate. having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature. It is found in Sycon and some other sponges, (iii) Leuconoid canal system. They are common in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, however, rare in the Cenozoic. Common Name. They feed on corals. Fertilized eggs will develop into free-swimming larvae. Choanocytes are located in the interior part of the sponge. confirms that Calcarea are chemotaxonomically different from "Silicosponges" or "Silicea" (Demospongiae + Hexa-ctinellida), it does not necessarily imply sponge paraphyly. [6,26]) and urchins (e.g. the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south. Choanocytes give rise to egg and sperm cells, and archaeocyte cells also give rise to egg cells. (Zool.) Red boring sponge, Cliona delitrix, Caribbean sea Sponges occur in rivers and streams, from rock pools to the deep ocean depths, from frozen arctic seas to the warm tropical seas. Although most species are found in tropical waters, there are approximately 10 species along the coast of Norway. b. This kind of sponge is found in different shades of brown, red and purple. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Sponges have been harvested for centuries by many civilizations. non-motile; permanently attached at the base. Only recently, a CA of another calcareous sponge has been described and a role in spicule formation and dissolution proposed [23,24]. Sponges are found in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and sizes – and scientists believe that the colors of the sponge may act as a protection from the sun’s harmful UV rays. Class Calcarea includes sponges that are small in size and less colorful than other sponge classes. Scientific name of this sponge is Ircinia campana. Particular species have been overharvested. Habitat: S. quadrangulatum seems to prefer shallow waters, where it can be found attached to rocks or algae. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.. Wörheide, G. 2002. They have been living in the waters of the world for more than 600 million years, and can now be found in all marine and many freshwater habitats. Calcarea, Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, and Homoscleromorpha make up the four classes of sponges; each type is classified based on the presence or composition of its spicules or spongin. Azure Vase Sponge: The Azure Vase Sponge is characterized by a tubular and vase-like shape. The class of the calcareous sponges, Calcarea, includes 400, strictly marine species. Calcarea sponges are found throughout the oceans, but are mainly in temperate areas. reproduction in which fertilization and development take place within the female body and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the female. Sponge: Astraeospongium meniscus (PRI 76744) The calcareous sponge-coral community, composed mostly of calcareous sponges (stromatoporoids, some pharetronids) and, to a lesser extent, colonial corals and thrombolites. As a result, calcareous sponges are quite brittle to touch. They are supported by a skeleton made up of the protein collagen and spicules, which may be calcareous or siliceous, depending on the group of sponges examined. Like nearly all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. The class of the calcareous sponges, Calcarea, includes 400, strictly marine species. Although most of the species are found in tropical waters, there are approximately 10 species along the coast of Norway. n. pl. Like nearly all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. Three types of aquiferous system are realized in Calcarea: asconoid, all internal cavities are lined by choanocytes (flagellated cells) without folding of the choanoderm; syconoid, simple folding of the choanoderm; and leuconoid, choanocytes are arranged in discrete "choanocyte chambers.". The calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna, originally observed along the Brazilian coast (Atlantic Ocean), is the only allochthonous invasive species of Porifera reported in the Mediterranean Sea. Calcareous Sponges: kingdom, phylum, class, order. Although most of the species are found in tropical waters, there are approximately 10 species along the coast of Norway. Calcareous sponges only reach about six inches in height. It is now established that many of these forms actually belong to several groups of demo-sponges because of the possession of primary siliceous spicules, and only few to Calcarea (pharetronids and some sphinctozoans). The Calcareous sponges (about 100 species) have spicules that are made of calcium carbonat and are often smaller than other sponges. "Calcarea" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Results. Clathrina sponges are usually dull colored and less than 0.16 in (4 mm) long. The calcareous skeleton shows certain resemblances, especially at the surface, to certain Palceozoio fossils, classed among " Tabulate corals " or Polyzoa. Calcareous sponges have internal fertilization, with egg size ranging from 25 to 100 pm. Leuconia aspera. Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety, Most Effective Anxiety and Panic Disorders Cure, Phylum Porifera Class Calcarea Number of families 22, Marine sponges with calcareous skeletal elements (spicules), Photo: A calcareous sponge in a cryptic reef environment in waters near the Little Cayman Islands, at a depth of 82 ft (25 m). Unlike the other two groups of sponges, they include both asconoid and synconoid members. Adult sponges are sessile animals that live attached to hard rocky surfaces, shells, or submerged objects. They are common in the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, however, rare in the Cenozoic. Sponges can be found at all depths from the intertidal to the abyssal zones and they are an It is more complex than the ascon type. Ocean Link. All others have leuconoid construction. Contributor Galleries They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate. Reproduction and Population Dynamics in the Calcareous Sponge, Leucetta losangelensis Dannielle Jensen, Amber M. Shows and Stephen M. Shuster Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona Abstract Leucetta losangelensis is a common intertidal calcareous sponge inhabiting the northern Gulf of California whose basic biology is poorly known. Calcareous sponges are found globally in all oceans, from intertidal to the deep sea, but not the abyss. Black Ball Sponge. In Calcareous sponges, reproduction can be both sexual and asexual, by budding. There is no known significance of calcareous sponges to humans. Because Calcareous Sponges are filter feeders, their diet usually consists of particulates found in the water as well as many microscopic organic … the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline. These sponges vary in shape from vase-shaped to individuals made up of mesh-like thin tubes, through to irregular masses. Calcareous sponges occur mainly on the rocky bottoms of the continental shelves in temperate, shallow waters; they are usually dull in colour. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. However, various CAs can usually be found in metazoan genomes, and often more than one CA can be linked to biomineralization in corals (e.g. Skeletal elements, choanocytes, and other cells are imbedded in a gelatinous matrix called mesohyl or mesoglea. Spicules possess a core of organic material around which is deposited either calcium carbonate or silica. They are characterized by spicules made out of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite. Class Calcarea was elevated to phylum status ("Calcispongia," a term that was already used in the mid-nineteenth century) (Zrzavy, et al., 1998; Borchiellini, et al., 2001), but as yet without robust statistical support (e.g., Medina, et al., 2001). Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, 2004. They are also more complex and have numerous canals . Animals with indeterminate growth continue to grow throughout their lives. 1. (Wörheide, 2002), Exclusively marine and mainly in temperate regions, Calcarea sponges are usually found in shallower, sheltered waters less than 1000 m. In tropical regions they are associated with coral reefs. Sponges have different amoeboid cells in the mesohyl. Glass sponges (about 500 species) have spicules made from silica, most are found at depths of 450 to 900 metres and are common in colder Antarctic waters. By characterizing their expression patterns, we could link two CAs (one intracellular and one extracellular) to the process of … b. Exclusively marine and mainly in temperate regions, Calcarea sponges are usually found in shallower, sheltered waters less than 1000 m. In tropical regions they are associated with coral reefs. The color is white, grey or light brown. Although the sponges are sessile they can be found all over the globe, in every ocean and sea. The calcium carbonate spicules are only megascleres, or large structural spicules. Active biomineralization was located with calcein-staining. It can reach a length of 9 cm after a life span usually no more than one year. Invertebrates. Also known as Calcareous Sponge, Coral Killing Sponge, Encrusting Sponge, Marine Sponge, Purple Coral-eating Sponge, Siliceous Sponge. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Calcareous sponges (Calcarea) This class, containing about 500 species, is characterized by spicules, or needle-like structural elements within the sponge, made of calcium carbonate, unlike the silica-based spicules in all other sponges. Also an aquatic biome consisting of the ocean bottom below the pelagic and coastal zones. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Sponges are preyed on by many animals. Specimen is from the research collections of the Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, New York. In total, 65 demosponges and 1 calcareous sponge species were encountered along belt transects (20 m2) on 11 stations between 1 and 17 m in depth. - can be found in shallow water but mostly found in deep. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003; Wörheide, 2002). Calcareous sponge, any of a class (Calcarea) of sponges characterized by skeletons composed entirely of calcium carbonate spicules (needlelike structures). Members of Porifera are sessile since they are attached to the substrate. Leucosolenia: It is a simplest colonial sponge consisting of number of horizontal and vertical tubes. They are sexual and viviparous, with some species probably asexual by budding. Three types of canal systems are found in sponges: (i) Asconoid canal system. The class of calcareous sponges, Calcarea, includes 400, strictly marine species. Therefore, it should be regarded as still contentious until further corroboratory data, such as a molecular multi-locus approach, is presented. These small dull colored sponges are the most primitive of the three groups. top of page. Particles are caught in the collar part of the choanocyte cells. January 13, 2005 Development of fertilized eggs takes place within the sponge. All sponges in this class are strictly marine, and, while they are distributed worldwide, most are found in shallow tropical waters. Calcareous Sponges live in shallow water and are exclusively found in marine environments. Reproduction and Population Dynamics in the Calcareous Sponge, Leucetta losangelensis Dannielle Jensen, Amber M. Shows and Stephen M. Shuster Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona Abstract Leucetta losangelensis is a common intertidal calcareous sponge inhabiting the northern Gulf of California whose basic biology is poorly known. (Illustration by Jonathan Higgins), Sweet Freedom Overcome Your Sugar Addiction, Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course, Habitat conservation - Reproductive Biology, Orientation behavior - Reproductive Biology. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Sponges will react by closing ostia or oscula, either because of direct physical stimulation or when suspended particles within the sponge are too large or highly concentrated. Calcareous sponges with calcium carbonate spicules or even an exoskeleton are only found in shallow waters. Measures 9" x 2.5" x 1.5" Special thanks to Scott Morrison for the images and … Sponge - Sponge - Skeleton: The skeleton of sponges is of great taxonomic significance. the area of shoreline influenced mainly by the tides, between the highest and lowest reaches of the tide. Search in feature However, new chemotaxonomic data from lipid biomarkers (Thiel, et al., 2002) support a closer relationship of Hexactinellida and Demosponges. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Kingdom: Anamalia Phylum: periphera Order: clathrinda Class: calcarea. Mulcrone, R. 2005. (Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Sponges in general may make up a significant portion of the benthic biomass. The cellular components of the body of the sponge usually are not rigid and have no fixed continuity; cells from the outer, inner, and middle layers of a sponge are freely mobile. Like all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Spicules, and other compounds, including potential biotoxins, probably discourage most predators. 2002) were collected between May and mid-August 2002– reproduction that is not sexual; that is, reproduction that does not include recombining the genotypes of two parents. Most Calcarea are 10 cm less in height, and are dull in color, although some colorful species are known. (Barnes, 1987; Brusca and Brusca, 2003), Most all sponges can reproduce asexually, by regenerating tissues. Calcareous sponges have spicules made of magnesium calcite (MgCO3), or may lack spicules altogether. Calcareans are viviparous and have blastula larvae. They can be found living on coral reefs in the shallow waters of tropical regions. Common Name. at http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/~gwoerhe/calcarea_introduction.html. Calcareous Sponges. Larvae are released in the spring and the sponge often dies immediately after. However, there are no known nerve structures. the body of water between Europe, Asia, and North America which occurs mostly north of the Arctic circle. Typically, the Calcarea are very small, measuring about 7-10 cm (3-4 inches) in height. Identification of "true" calcareous sponges in the fossil record is difficult because fossil remains often lack diagnostic spicules at all. Glass sponge reefs were thought to have gone extinct about 40 million years ago, leaving behind giant fossil cliffs that stretch across parts of Spain, France, Germany, and Romania. Stromatoporoid - Aulacera plummeri (1843) Ordovician - Cincinnatian Series - Maquoketa Group - Dillsboro, Indiana. In contrast to the intracellularly formed siliceous spicules found in the other sponge classes, Calcarea are characterized by calcium carbonate … [11,25]), molluscs (e.g. Soleneiscus radovani; S. Grantiopsis heroni; B. Sycon capricorn; l. Lemon-sponge (Leucetta chagosensis). Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Class 1. (Photo by Bill Wood. (Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, 2004). Calcareous sponges live in diverse habitats. They form the basis for rich communities of other invertebrates, plants, fish, and protists. The opening is framed by fine hairs. All sponges in this class are strictly marine, and, while they are distributed worldwide, most are found in shallow tropical waters. Hexactinellida (glass sponges), Calcarea (calcareous sponges) and the recently reerected Homoscleromorpha (Gazave et al., 2012). Skeleton - Skeleton - Crystals: Crystals form the basis of many skeletons, such as the calcareous triradiate (three-armed) and quadradiate (four-armed) spicules of calcareous sponges. National Science Foundation Accessed However, some sponges may move as amoeboid cells at the base move. All three sponge body plans are represented within class Calcarea : asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid. Examples: Leucosolenia, Sycon, (Scypha) Grantia. There is still dispute about the true phy-logenetic relationships of the three extant sponge classes, including also the relationship of the class Calcarea to other (higher) diploblastic taxa like Ctenophora and Cnidaria. They are usually found in shallow water, though one species has been found at a depth of 4000 meters. An aquatic habitat. Brusca, R., G. Brusca. However, most Pharetronids probably belong to subclass Calcaronea. They are mostly colorless (whitish to beige), sometimes bright yellow (Leucetta chagosensis), dark greenish-brown (Pericharax heteroraphis), or fluorescent red/ orange (Leucetta microraphis, sometimes). cf. Bottom habitats in the very deepest oceans (below 9000 m) are sometimes referred to as the abyssal zone. Sponges (Porifera) are a group of animals that includes about 10,000 living species. Like all other sponges, they are sedentary filter feeders. An order of marine sponges, containing calcareous spicules. All sponges in this class are strictly marine, and, while they are distributed worldwide, most are found in shallow tropical waters. Demosponges consist of 90% of sponge species. Calcareous sponges range from minute size an inch or less (few millimeters), to about a maximum of about 12 in (30 cm) (Pericharax heteroraphis). [4,13]). They are usually found in shallow water, though one species has been found at a depth of 4000 meters. The polyps live only on the reef surface. January 13, 2005 Reproduction occurs asexually by budding and sexually. The sponge has been found in 60-90 fathoms off Porto Santo Island and Madeira. Calcareous sponge synonyms, Calcareous sponge pronunciation, Calcareous sponge translation, English dictionary definition of Calcareous sponge. Used mainly by aquatic invertebrates, especially plankton, but also by baleen whales. (Photo by ©Gregory G. Dimijian, M. D./Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.). Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.). Synconoid sponges are bigger with thicker walls; while leuconoid are the largest of all. Body form is asconoid, syconoid or leuconoid. "Porifera" However, this proposal is not followed in the most comprehensive systematic treatment of sponges to date, the Systema Porifera (Hooper and Van Soest, 2002) and the issue of sponge para-phyly is at the time of writing (2003) far from being resolved.