The latter arrangement triggered the conspiracy leading to his assassination on the Ides of March in 44 BC. On 10 January 49 BC, Roman general Julius Caesar defied an ultimatum set to him by the Senate. and he set forward on his journey as privately as The various governorships gave Caesar command of an army of (initially) four legions. To the ancient Romans, space was sacred, and the Rubicon River was … As Caesar lingered in Egypt, the situation quickly deteriorated. Crossing the Rubicon: Caesar's Decision and the Fate of Rome eBook: Fezzi, Luca: Kindle Store From this we get 2 staggering expressions, both meaning a similar component. Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. Agreeing, his army called for action. The term of his proconsulship, which allowed him immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the customary one year. In 52 BC, at the end of the First Triumvirate, the Roman Senate supported Pompey as sole consul; meanwhile, Caesar had become a military hero and champion of the people. At the conclusion of Caesar's first consulship, the Senate, rather than granting him a provincial governorship, tasked him with watching over the Roman forests. [6] The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war mostly eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and led to the Roman Empire (27 BC–AD 476). He would be assassinated in 44BC. As Caesar progressed southwards, Pompey retreated towards Brundisium, initially ordering Domitius (engaged in raising troops in Etruria) to stop Caesar's movement on Rome from the direction of the Adriatic seaboard. He snatched a trumpet from one of them and ran to the river with it; then sounding the "Advance!" Throughout the Great Roman Civil War's early stages, Caesar frequently proposed to Pompey for both generals to sheathe their swords. scanty retinue. Caesar and Cleopatra never married because Roman law prohibited a marriage with a non-Roman citizen. The Optimates under Marcus Junius Brutus and Cicero surrendered after the battle, while others, including those under Cato the Younger and Metellus Scipio fought on. to fight it out with arms!' Within 27 days after setting out he arrived on the Iberian peninsula. So Caesar's crossing the Rubicon jointly with his military become in truth an statement of his target to project the authority of the Senate. The alliance was further consolidated by Pompey's marriage to Julia, the daughter of Caesar, in 59 BC. This tiny stream would reveal Caesar's intentions and mark the point of no return. Nothing worked, and the mutineers continued to call for their discharges and back pay. Afterwards, Caesar renewed his pursuit of Pompey in Greece. Scipio was defeated in 46 BC at the Battle of Thapsus in North Africa. Caesar's allies in the Senate, especially Mark Anthony, Curio, Cassius and Caelius Rufus, tried to defend their patron, but were threatened with violence. In 49 B.C. January 4: Caesar narrowly escapes defeat by his former second in command, February 6: Caesar defeats the combined army of, March 17: In his last victory, Caesar defeats the, Caesar probably writes the Commentaries in this year, Julius Caesar is assassinated on March 15, the, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 01:45. Caesar's Civil War resulted from the long political subversion of the Roman Government's institutions, which began with the career of Tiberius Gracchus, continuing with the Marian reforms of the legions, the bloody dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and completed by the First Triumvirate over Rome. The Senate, fearful of Caesar, reduced the number of legions he had,[5] then demanded that he relinquish command of his army. Crossing the Rubicon. Even as he hesitated this incident occurred. During the ten years, Caesar used his military forces to conquer Gaul and to invade Britain, which was popular with the people, however his enemies claimed it was without explicit authorization by the Senate.[7]. Julius Caesar pausing on the banks of the Rubicon. Caesar, with the help of Pompey and Crassus, evaded the Senate's decrees by legislation passed through the popular assemblies. Pharnaces himself fled quickly back to the Bosporus, where he managed to assemble a small force of Scythian and Sarmatian troops with which he was able to gain control of a few cities, but one of his former governors, Asandar, attacked his forces and killed him.