It is Spanish for "governess", due to its ability to secure more water by inhibiting the growth of nearby plants. Gives off a musty odor after rain. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. Black banding at the nodes of Larrea tridentata is caused by resin secreted by glands on the inner surfaces of the stipules. Hardy to USDA Zone 7 Native and very common in the deserts of southeastern California, Arizona, southern Utah, western Texas, and northern Mexico. Accumulation of fallen leaves, as well as other detritus caught from the passing wind, creates an ecological community specific to the creosote bush canopy, including beetles, millipedes, pocket mice, and kangaroo rats. Larrea tridentata. Chaparral Leaf Here are some hard facts about the herb known as Chaparral Leaf (Larrea tridentata): Also known as the "creosote bush," Larrea tridentata is a flowering evergreen shrub native to the deserts of the Southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. Five species of evergreen, xerophytic shrubs. tridentata (DC.) Sun and reflected heat. Creosote bush is most common on the well-drained soils of alluvial fans and flats. SPECIES: Larrea tridentata GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Creosotebush is a native, drought-tolerant, evergreen shrub growing up to 13.2 feet (4 m) tall. It is a genus of flowering plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. Cancer 4. In parts of its range, it may cover large areas in practically pure stands, though it usually occurs in association with Ambrosia dumosa (burro bush or bur-sage). Chickenpox 5. Notice that most other plants avoid creosote "groves", as the roots of the plant emit repellents. Common Names: Creosote Bush, Greasewood, Hediondilla, Jarilla, Larrea Tridentata, Larrea Divaricata, Larreastat, Larrea Mexicana, Zygophyllum Tridentatum. [7] In the regions where it grows, its smell is often associated with the "smell of rain".[8]. Surfaces of younger parts are resinous and sticky; the odoriferous resins give it the common name, creosote bush. [11][12][13], King Clone was identified and its age estimated by Frank Vasek, a professor at the University of California, Riverside. As the creosote bush grows older, its oldest branches eventually die and its crown splits into separate crowns. Patrick Breen, This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. This is distinct from the southern California plant community which is also called ‘chaparral’. Bladder infection 3. The yellow flowers turn into small gray fruits that attract foraging animals. Coville var. Scientific Name: Larrea tridentata Common Names: Creosote Bush, Creosotebush Plant Characteristics. Plants drop some leaves heading into summer, but if all leaves are lost, the plant will not recover. Chemicals found in creosote bush roots have been shown to inhibit the growth of burro bush roots, but as of 2013, much of their relationship remains unexplained. Tuberculosis 14. [15] Chemicals found in creosote bush roots have been shown to inhibit the growth of burro bush roots,[16] but as of 2013, much of their relationship remains unexplained. How is it used? [23] The United States Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about the health hazards of ingesting chaparral or using it as an internal medicine, and discourages its use. Larrea tridentata, the creosote bush, is the most common shrub of the three hottest US deserts (Mojave, Sonoran and Chihuahuan).Plants can bloom any time of year, following rainfall, though early spring to early summer is the usual time. Growth Form: Shrub; plants drought-tolerant; brittle branches. Leaf: The leaf is a distinctive bifolate wing, tiny; usually yellow-green becoming darker and aromatic after rainfall. Other Common Names: Comments: Creosote is extremely long-lived, and some are thought to be as old as 11,000 years! [22], Larrea tridentata is often referred to as chaparral when used as a herbal remedy and supplement; however, it does not grow in the synonymous plant community chaparral. Now, however, it has been shown[citation needed] that the root systems of mature creosote plants are simply so efficient at absorbing water that fallen seeds nearby cannot accumulate enough water to germinate, effectively creating dead zones around every plant.[18]. tridentata , Larrea mexicana General Description: Evergreen. Varieites include : Larrea tridentata (DC.) Parts of the plant used: The leaves and twigs. Also, in the first line - I dislike the listing of "greasewood" as a common name, and the source cited is very poor. Patrick Breen, Possibly because it is so common in the desert, one Arizona website states that its "attractiveness is a matter of personal preference", suggesting that more than a few desert inhabitants consider it ugly. It cures the bad odor of the Mouth. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Fruit rounded capsule, 4.5 mm wide, covered with whitish to rusty hairs. arenaria L.D. One interesting characteristic of this plant, which was an important native American herb for centuries, is that it produces a sap that … Measurements of the plant, as well as radiocarbon dating of wood fragments, were used to determine the plant's mean annual growth rate outward from the center of the ring. [19] The Coahuilla Indians used the plant for intestinal complaints and tuberculosis. It has waxy green leaves all year long, more if it rains! While the chaparral plant is not proven to be totally safe and effective, in traditional folk medicine and alternative medicine, it has been used for a host of things, such as: 1. Galls may form by the activity of the creosote gall midge. By measuring the diameter of the ring, its total age could be estimated. Colds 6. Owing to the harshness of the germination environment above mature root systems, young creosote bushes are much more susceptible to drought stress than established plants. Characteristics: L. tridentata is an evergreen perennial with a shrub growth habit, branched and knotty, growing up to 12 feet tall. [25], Cancer Research UK states: "We don't recommend that you take chaparral to treat or prevent any type of cancer. It is in leaf all year. Creosote bush is most common on the well-drained soils of alluvial fans and flats. Flowers about 3 cm wide, yellow, appear over much to the year, but especially in spring. [4], It is a flowering plant in the family Zygophyllaceae. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs). Sexually transmitted diseases 11. The Pima drank a decoction of the leaves as an emetic, and applied the boiled leaves as poultices to wounds or sores. Snake-bite pain 12. This shrub is extremely common and widespread in the desert and is the predominate plant in areas known as creosote flats. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta ... Larrea tridentata (DC.) "[26], harvnb error: no target: CITEREFUnited_States_Herbarium1890 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWignallBowers1993 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, United States Food and Drug Administration, "The oldest living thing is a quiet survivor", "Health Canada warns consumers not to take products containing chaparral", "King Clone, The World's Oldest Living Thing",, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 June 2020, at 00:40. The species grows as far east as Zapata County, Texas, along the Rio Grande southeast of Laredo near the 99th meridian west. The Arabian camel, brought to the area by the United States Camel Corps, readily ate creosote bush. : LADIT: Larrea divaricata Cav. Gas 8. In Sonora, it is more commonly called hediondilla. ssp. The bran… Leaves opposite, compound, 2 leaflets fused at the base, each less than 18 mm × 8 mm, lanceolate to curved, usually yellow-green with a glossy surface, darker and aromatic (creosote odor) after rainfall. Larrea Tridentata is a group of closely related wild shrubs. Arthritis 2. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Waxy coating on … It is antibacterial and prevents the Tooth Decay. Common Name: Creosote Bush. The common name refers to the greasy smell exuded by the plant, most noticeable during wetter periods. Larrea tridentata . Ground heat compounds the young plants' susceptibility to water stress, and ground temperatures can reach upwards of 70 Â°C (160 Â°F). One of my favorite first aid plants for infections is Chaparral (Larrea tridentata, Zygophyllaceae). creosotebush. Water loss is reduced by the resinous waxy coating of the leaves, and by their small size, which prevents them from heating above air temperature (which would increase the vapor pressure deficit between the leaf and the air, thus increasing water loss). This single clonal colony plant of L. tridentata reaches up to 67 ft (20 m) in diameter, with an average diameter of 45 ft (14 m). [17] Originally,[citation needed] it was assumed that the plant produced a water-soluble inhibitor that prevented the growth of other bushes near mature, healthy bushes. Eventually, the old crown dies and the new one becomes a clonal colony from the previous plant, composed of many separate stem crowns all from the same seed. The whole plant exhibits a characteristic odor of creosote, from which the common name derives. Chaparral is a good Mouthwash. Scientific Name: Larrea Divaricata L., Larrea Tridentata, Zygophyllaceae Common Uses: Chaparral is used for digestion problems including cramps and gas; respiratory tract conditions including colds and infections; and ongoing … Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Geographic subdivisions for Larrea tridentata: SNE, D, (uncommon Teh, SnJV, SCo, SnJt) MAP CONTROLS 1. In Mexican traditional medicine, the leaves and twigs are stepped in boiling water for just a few seconds to make a tea. Color: Yellow Common name: Creosote Bush, Greasewood Latin name: Larrea tridentata Family: ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Height: 3-10 feet Description: Creosote bush is an open, vase-shape shrub with solitary, small, numerous flowers on grayish stems/trunks. CPN (Certified Plant Nerd), College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture, USDA Hardiness Zone Maps of the United States, Oregon Master Gardener Training: Identifying Woody Plants. It can be readily found in the Mojave, Sonaran, and Chihuahuan deserts as well as Death Valley, but its territory includes parts of New Mexico and Texas as well. The leaves are naturally varnished, to slow evaporation and conserve water. This normally happens when the plant is 30 to 90 years old. [6], Larrea tridentata is an evergreen shrub growing to 1 to 3 m (3.3 to 9.8 ft) tall, rarely 4 m (13 ft). Rounded, multi-stemmed evergreen shrub. Creosote bush stands tend to display an evenly spaced distribution of plants. Symbol Scientific Name; COTR10: Covillea tridentata (DC.) arenaria L.D. Skin problems, including acne 10. It has a number of other common names. The bark is a light grey color, patterned with darker shaded, swollen nodes. The specific name tridentata refers to its three-toothed leaves. [5], Larrea tridentata is a prominent species in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Deserts of western North America, and its range includes those and other regions in portions of southeastern California, Arizona, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States, and Chihuahua, Sonora, Coahuila, Nuevo León, Zacatecas, Durango and San Luis Potosì in Mexico. Sometimes plants appear as if carefully spaced, possibly due to wide spreading roots and allopathy. [21] The shrub is still widely used as an herbal medicine in Mexico. Plant Name. Evergreen shrub, vase-shaped, 3-10 ft (0.9-3 m) tall, slow growing, open in shallow, dry soils, dense when water is more available. non Cav. [13][14] It is within the Creosote Rings Preserve of the Lucerne Valley and Johnson Valley.[13]. (Of course, "attractiveness" of any plant is a matter of personal preference... as is wallpaper.). You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. [20] Papago Indians prepared it medicinally for stiff limbs, snake bites, and menstrual cramps. Sometimes plants appear as if carefully spaced, possibly due to wide spreading roots and allopathy. The flowers are up to 25 mm (0.98 in) in diameter, with five yellow petals. [10], The "King Clone" creosote ring is one of the oldest living organisms on Earth. Vail: LADI2: Larrea divaricata auct. Larrea tridentata is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft 1in). ABBREVIATION: LARTRI SYNONYMS: Larrea divaricata Cav. Cell division can occur during these times of water stress, and new cells commonly quickly absorb water after rainfall. Respiratory infections 9. Leaves alternate, lobed or pinnate, have gummy secretions and a distinctive creosote-like odor, especially after a rain. Mature plants, however, can tolerate extreme drought stress. Colors: Reddish to white (Fruit) Shapes: Small, globose (Fruit) Taste: Bitter: Health benefits: Lowers cholesterol, Treats cancer, Multiple treatment, HIV treatment: More facts about Creosote bush Bark gray with darker swollen nodes. It is an aborigine of North America. Duration: Perennial, Evergreen Growth Habit: Shrub Arizona Native Status: Native Habitat: Desert. Weight loss Some early research points to potential support for some (but not all) of these uses, but the… Diabetes 7. tridentata: 3 toothed. The scientific name of Chapparal is Larrea Tridentata. [24] In 2005, Health Canada issued a warning to consumers to avoid using the leaves of Larrea species because of the risk of damage to the liver and kidneys. Scientific Name: Larrea tridentata Common Name: Creosote Bush Family: Zygophyllaceae, caltrop family Duration: Perennial Size: Up to 12 feet, usually much less. Other articles where Creosote bush is discussed: desert: Origin: For example, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), although now widespread and common in North American hot deserts, was probably a natural immigrant from South America as recently as the end of the last Ice Age about 11,700 years ago. Coville var. ... Larrea tridentata. NRCS PLANT CODE: LATR2 COMMON NAMES: creosote bush greasewood TAXONOMY: The scientific name of creosote bush is Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cov. The stems of the plant bear resinous, dark green leaves with two opposite lanceolate leaflets joined at the base, with a deciduous awn between them, each leaflet 7 to 18 mm (0.28 to 0.71 in) long and 4 to 8.5 mm (0.16 to 0.33 in) broad. The term "chaparral" refers to an area where plants adapt to droughts, sun exposure, and fire; however, Larrea tridentata is a xerophyte (or dry land plant) that does not usually grow in the chaparral.2 The chaparrals are a group of closely related wild shrubs found in the desert regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico as well as in the arid regions of South America, such as Argentina and Bolivia.10 Chaparral products found in health food stores usually consist of leaflets and twigs. In terms of negative water potential, creosote bushes can operate fully at -50 bars of water potential and have been found living down to -120 bars, although the practical average floor is around -70 bars, where the plant's need for cellular respiration generally exceeds the level that the water-requiring process of photosynthesis can provide. As of Nov 2013, Google recognizes "larrea tridentata" as a synonym for "creosote bush"; creosote bush is the common name supplied by the USDA plants database, and it is what is used in NPS visitor centers. Larrea tridentata is an ancient herb that thrives in the arid deserts. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. Native Americans in the Southwest held beliefs that it treated many maladies, including sexually transmitted diseases, tuberculosis, chicken pox, dysmenorrhea, and snakebite. Larrea tridentata called creosote bush and greasewood as a plant,[2] chaparral as a medicinal herb,[3] and gobernadora in Mexico. When pollinated, petals twist 90 degrees. Hardy to USDA Zone 7    Native and very common in the deserts of southeastern California, Arizona, southern Utah, western Texas, and northern Mexico. Stomach cramps 13. It is a member of the caltrop family (Zygophyllaceae) [52,98]. It has been alive an estimated 11,700 years, in the central Mojave Desert near present-day Lucerne Valley, California. Name: Creosote bush: Scientific Name: Larrea tridentata: Origin: Larrea tridentata develops in the Sonoran, Mojave and Chihuahuan Deserts. Not fussy about soil. It has a number of other common names, but in the world of herbal medicine, Chaparral seems to be the most common, common name. From this, it can be inferred that all the plants inside a stand are of equal age. Germination is quite active during wet periods, but most of the young plants die very quickly unless water conditions are optimal. In parts of its range, it may cover large areas in practically pure stands, though it usually occurs in association with Ambrosia dumosa (burro bush or bur-sage). The plant has been widely used medicinally by … Creosote Bush Larrea tridentata. Chaparral (Larrea tridentata) is a botanical dietary supplement made from a desert shrub and used for its antioxidant properties. Other Common Name: “Chaparral”, Gobernadora, Guamis, Hediondilla, Jarilla. This rapid uptake causes branches to grow several centimeters at the end of a wet season. Because of leaf and stem alignment, creosotebush provides little shade during the full desert sunshine. Plant Description Origin: Native Similar Species: Larrea divaricata subsp. Coville – creosote bush Variety: Larrea tridentata (DC.) OTHER NAME(S): Creosote Bush, Créosotier, Greasewood, Hediondilla, Jarilla, Larrea divaricata, Larrea tridentata, Larreastat, Larrea mexicana, Zygophyllum tridentatum. Its numerous branches are brittle and densely leafy at the tips. To become established, the young plant apparently must experience three to five years of abnormally cool and moist weather during and after germination. Can be used as a specimen plant or massed for a screen or hedge. As a plant known as "creosote bush" and "greasewood", as a medicinal herb known as "chaparral" and as "gobernadora" in Mexico. Larrea tridentata NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. It is thought that this meeting reestablished a biological relationship that was broken when the American camels became extinct in the Quaternary Extinction Event, making it an evolutionary anachronism. The small, lanceolate leaves have an opposite phyllotaxy, young leaves are resinous and coated with natural oils that conserve water. Read more about Larrea tridentata; Contact Info.
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